財団法人 電力中央研究所

電力中央研究所 研究報告書(電力中央研究所報告)
[CRIEPI Research Report]

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研究報告書 詳細情報
[Detailed Information]

報告書番号 [Report Number]
V05008
タイトル
植物による環境修復(4) -−ヘビノネゴザのカドミウム耐性メカニズムの解析と関連遺伝子の単離−-
[Title]
Analysis of Cd tolerance/accumulation and identification of the related genes in a metal hyper-tolerator fern, Athyrium yokoscense
概要 (図表や脚注は「報告書全文」に掲載しております)
我が国の代表的なCdハイパーアキュームレーターであるシダ植物「ヘビノネゴザ」のCd蓄積・耐性機構に関する生理学的解析を行い、細胞に蓄積したCdの90%以上が細胞壁に存在していることや、Cdの存在下でも生育に必要な必須元素(特にFe)を十分量吸収できることなどを明らかにした。この結果は、ヘビノネゴザのもつ必須元素の輸送担体が標的の元素に対して特異性が高く、Cdの取り込み率が低いか、あるいは一度取り込まれたCdを細胞外に排出する機構が存在するかのいずれかの可能性を示唆していると考えられた。そこで、Cd耐性に関連すると考えられる4つのFe輸送担体遺伝子(AyIRT1、AyNramp1、AyYSL1、AyYSL2)を単離した。このうち、完全長を単離できたAyIRT1、AyNramp1を酵母に過剰発現させたところ、Cd吸収量の低下とCd耐性の向上が認められた。
[Abstract]
The mechanism of Cd tolerance/accumulation of a metal hyper-tolerator fern, Athyrium yokoscense, was analyzed at physiological and molecular views using the callus. Another callus induced from tobacco plants, which shows comparatively high Cd tolerance/accumulation ability among angiosperms, was used as a control. The fern callus grew vigorously even under the considerably high concentration of Cd (100M) in a liquid culture system, although the tobacco callus reduced the growth at the condition for 20% of the control condition. More than 90% of the total cellular Cd accumulation was distributed in the cell wall fraction in the fern, while only about 40% of that was in the fraction in tobacco plants. Further observations using protoplast verified the result; the fern protoplasts contained only one-fifth absolute amount of Cd than the tobacco protoplasts. Furthermore, the six essential-metal concentrations (Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and Zn) were determined in those calli grown under the Cd condition using ICP. The tissue concentration of Cu, Fe and Zn were almost constant, whereas that of Ca, Mg and Mn was slightly but significantly decreased in the fern callus. On the contrary, that of Fe was drastically decreased (more than 50%) but the others were almost constant in the tobacco callus. Thus, the fern callus could grow normally even under the Cd-exposure condition, although the tobacco callus was in a state of Fe-deficiency. These observations indicate two possibilities that essential-metal transporters, especially Fe-transporters, of the fern have high selectivity for the targeted metals even under the Cd-exposure condition and/or Cd once imported into cells excreted by a hypothetical exporter. Thus, either or both of these may induce the fact that low Cd concentration in the inner cell membrane of the fern, and relate to at least a part of the Cd tolerance of the fern. Subsequently, four Fe-transporters (AyIRT1, AyNramp1, AyYSL1 and AyYSL2), which has already been confirmed to transport Fe in some plant species and may relate to the Cd transport, were isolated from the fern. Because two of those genes, AyIRT1 and AyNramp1, contained full of the ORF, those were characterized for their putative proteinaceous structures and overexpressed in a yeast mutant strain, which is deficit in a part of Fe-acquisition ability. Although each of the putative structures consist of lesser numbers of trans-membrane domains than known structures of their Arabidopsis homologues, it conserves major common amino acid sequences, which may relate to the Fe transport. Both types of the yeast overexpressors showed higher Cd tolerance with less amount of cellular Cd concentration.
報告書年度 [Report's Fiscal Year]
2005
発行年月 [Issued Year / Month]
2006/02
報告者 [Author]

担当

氏名

所属

吉原 利一

環境科学研究所バイオテクノロジー領域

後藤 文之

環境科学研究所バイオテクノロジー領域

庄子 和博

環境科学研究所バイオテクノロジー領域

キーワード [Keywords]
和文 英文
ファイトリメディエーション Phytoremediation
重金属 Heavy Metal
蓄積 Accumulation
耐性 Torelance
遺伝子組換え植物 Genetic Engineered Plant
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